Kestopluskvamperfekti

Kestopluskvamperfektin funktioita

Kestopluskvamperfekti vastaa kestoperfektiä, mutta viittaa aikaan, joka oli 'ennen nyt'. Kuten kestoperfektissä, olemme kiinnostuneempia prosessista.

Esimerkkejä
  • Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived?
  • We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when Jane found her key.
  • It had been raining hard for several hours and the streets were very wet.
  • Her friends had been thinking of calling the police when she walked in.

Tätä muotoa käytetään myös epäsuorassa lainauksessa. Se vastaa kestoimperfektiä ja kestoperfektiä suorassa lainauksessa:

  • Jane said, "I have been gardening all afternoon." = Jane said she had been gardening all afternoon.
  • When the police questioned him, John said, "I was working late in the office that night." = When the police questioned him, John told them he had been working late in the office that night.

Kestopluskvamperfektin muodostaminen

Kestopluskvamperfekti muodostetaan kahdesta osasta - verbin pluskvamperfekti to be (=had been) + partisiipin preesens (verbin kantamuoto+ing).

Subjekti had been verbi + ing
I had been walking
Myönteinen
She had been trying
Kielteinen
She hadn't been sleeping
Kysymyslause
Had you been eating?
Kielteinen kysymyslause
Hadn't they been living?
To buy, kestopluskvamperfekti
Myönteinen Kielteinen Kysymyslause
I had been buying I hadn't been buying Had I been buying?
You had been buying You hadn't been buying Had you been buying?
She had been buying She hadn't been buying Had she been buying?
We had been buying We hadn't been buying Had we been buying?
They had been buying They hadn't been buying Had they been buying?