Aikamuodon muutokset epäsuorassa lainauksessa

Yleensä aikamuoto epäsuorassa lainauksessa on yksi taaksepäin, mitä suorassa kerronnassa:
She said, "I am tired." = She said that she was tired.

Suora kerronta Epäsuora lainaus
Preesens Imperfekti
"I always drink coffee", she said She said that she always drank coffee.
Kestopreesens Kestoperfekti
"I am reading a book", he explained. He explained that he was reading a book
Imperfekti Pluskvamperfekti
"Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday.
Perfekti Pluskvamperfekti
"I have been to Spain", he told me. He told me that he had been to Spain.
Pluskvamperfekti Pluskvamperfekti
"I had just turned out the light," he explained. He explained that he had just turned out the light.
Kestopreesens Kestoperfekti
They complained, "We have been waiting for hours". They complained that they had been waiting for hours.
Kestoimperfekti Kestopluskvamperfekti
"We were living in Paris", they told me. They told me that they had been living in Paris.
Futuuri 1. konditionaali
"I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said. He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday.
Futuuri Konditionaali
She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday". She said that she would be using the car next Friday.

Verbin aikamuotoa ei tarvitse muuttaa, jos kertova verbi on preesensissä tai jos alkuperäinen väittämä pitää edelleen paikkaansa.

  • He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one.
  • We explained that it is very difficult to find our house.

 

Nämä modaaliapuverbit eivät muutu epäsuorassa lainauksessa: might, could, would, should, ought to:

  • We explained, "It could be difficult to find our house." = We explained that it could be difficult to find our house.
  • She said, "I might bring a friend to the party." = She said that she might bring a friend to the party.