Imperfekti

Imperfektin määritelmä

Imperfektiä, jota joskus kutsutaan myös preteriksi, käytetään kun halutaan puhua päättyneestä toiminnasta ajanjaksolla ennen nykyisyyttä. Imperfekti on menneen ajan aikamuodon perusmuoto englannissa. Toiminta on voinut tapahtua lähihistoriassa tai kauemman aikaa sitten ja toiminnan kestolla ei ole merkitystä.

Esimerkkejä
  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

Imperfektiä käytetään aina, kun kuvaillaan milloin jotakin tapahtui, joten se liitetään tiettyihin menneen ajan ilmaisuihin.

  • yleisyys: often, sometimes, always
    I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    I often brought my lunch to school.
  • tietty ajanjakso: last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o'clock
    I went to the theatre last night
  • epämääräisiin ajan ilmaisuihin: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago
    People lived in caves a long time ago.
    She played the piano when she was a child.

Huomioi: sana ago on hyödyllinen kuvailemaan menneen ajan etäisyyttä jälkeen ajanjakson: a week ago, three years ago, a minute ago.

Ole varovainen! Imperfekti englannissa voi vaikuttaa äidinkielesi aikamuodolta, mutta sen merkitys voi olla kokonaan eri.

Imperfektin muodostaminen

Säännöllisten verbien imperfekti
Myönteinen
Subjekti + verbi + ed  
I skipped.  
Kielteinen
Subjekti + did not + infinitiivi ilman to
They didn't go.
Kysymyslause
Did + subject + infinitiivi ilman to
Did she arrive?
Kielteinen kysymyslause
Did not + subjekti + infinitiivi ilman to
Didn't you play?
To Walk
Myönteinen Kielteinen Kysymyslause
I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
He walked He didn't walk Did he walk?
We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?
They walked They didn't walk Did they walk?
Imperfektimuodot: to be, to have, to do
Subjekti Verbi
  Be Have Do
I was had did
You were had did
He/She/It was had did
We were had did
You were had did
They were had did

Huomioita myönteisistä, kielteisistä & kysymysmuodoista

Myönteinen

Imperfektin myönteisen lauseen muodostus on helppoa.

  • I was in Japan last year
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
Kielteinen ja kysymysmuoto

Kielteisen ja kysymysmuodon imperfektien muodostuksessa käytetään pääverbiä "to do", jolloin apuverbi muuttaa muotoaan "did", e.g. We didn't do our homework last night.
Sanan "have" kielteinen muoto imperfektissä muodostetaan yleensä käyttämällä apuverbiä "did", mutta joskus lisätään vain not tai lyhennys "n't".

Kysymysmuoto sanalle "have" muodostetaan imperfektissä yleensä käyttämällä apuverbiä "did".

Esimerkkejä
  • They weren't in Rio last summer.
  • We didn't have any money.
  • We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn't do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

Huomioi: Kaikkien verbien imperfektien kysymys- ja kieltomuodoille, käytä aina apuverbiä 'did''.

Epäsäännöllisten verbien imperfekti

 

to go
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn't go to bed early last night.
to give
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn't give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
to come
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn't come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?