Pluskvamperfekti

Pluskvamperfektin funktioita

Pluskvamperfekti viittaa aikaan ennen nykyisyyttä. Sillä tehdään selväksi että yksi tapahtuma tapahtui ennen toista menneisyydessä. Ei ole väliä kumpi tapahtuma mainitaan ensiksi - aikamuoto tekee tämän selväksi.

Näissä esimerkeissä, Tapahtuma A tapahtui ensin ja Tapahtuma B toisena tai viimeisimpänä:

Tapahtuma A Tapahtuma B
John had gone out when I arrived in the office.
Taphtuma A Tapahtuma B
I had saved my document before the computer crashed.
Tapahtuma B Taphtuma A
When they arrived we had already started cooking.
Taphtuma B Tapahtuma A
He was very tired because he hadn't slept well.

Pluskvamperfektin muodostaminen

Pluskvamperfekti englannissa muodostetaan kahdesta osasta: verbin mennyt aikamuoto to have (had) + pääverbin partisiipin imperfekti.

Subjekti had partisiipin imperfekti
Myönteinen
She had given
Kielteinen
She hadn't asked.
Kysymyslause
Had they arrived?
Kielteinen kysymyslause
Hadn't you finished?
To decide, pluskvamperfekti
Myönteinen Kielteinen Kysymyslause
I had decided I hadn't decided Had I decided?
You had decided You hadn't decided Had you decided?
She had decided She hadn't decided Had she decided?
We had decided We hadn't decided Had we decided?
They had decided They hadn't decided Had they decided?

Pluskvamperfekti + just

'Just' käytetään yhdessä pluskvamperfektin kanssa viittaamaan tapahtumaan, joka oli vain hieman ennen nykyistä, esim.

  • The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
  • She had just left the room when the police arrived.
  • I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.